B6 (Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate)
as nature-identical bioavailable vitamins
Vitamins B6, B9, and B12 have been shown to help balance homocysteine levels in a healthy range, associated with sharp overall mental performance. Vitamins B6, B9, and B12 have also been shown to promote mood balance, mental energy, information storage and long-range brain health. They also remedy mental performance concerns related to cognitive decline, brain aging, and poor blood flow to the brain. They also maintain the mood-balancing brain protector S−Adenosyl Methionine (SAMe), and form myelin, the fatty sheath that surrounds and protects all brain cells and nerves.
- Deijen JB, van der Beek EJ, Orlebeke JF, van den Berg H. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology. 1992;109(4):489–496.
- Homocysteine Lowering Trialists’ Collaboration. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 1998 Mar 21; 316(7135): 894–898.
- Schafer JH, Glass TA, Bolla KI, Mintz M, Jedlicka AE, Schwartz BS. Homocysteine and cognitive function in a population-based study of older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(3):381–388.
Acetyl-L-Tyrosine is an acetylated form of the amino acid L-Tyrosine with nootropic effects. NALT increases attention, motivation and concentration, and improves memory and learning. Tyrosine is a Dopamine precursor – it increases the synthesis of dopamine. Tyrosine also increases the synthesis of noradrenaline from dopamine, and balances the levels of Serotonin and GABA.
- Topall G & Laborit H (1989). Brain tyrosine increases after treating with prodrugs: comparison with tyrosine. J Pharm Pharmacol, 41(11):789-91. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1989.tb06368.x
- Fernstrom JD & Fernstrom MH (2007). Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and catecholamine synthesis and function in the brain. J Nutr, 137(6 Suppl 1):1539S-1547S. PMID: 17513421
Phosphatidylserine is a naturally occurring aminophospholipid found in high concentrations in the brain. Studies indicate Phosphatidylserine's ability to reduce stress, fatigue, attention deficit and forgetfulness, and to increase mental processing speed and accuracy, attention and working memory. Phosphatidylserine has also been proven to increase NGF (nerve growth factor) activity and brain glucose metabolism.
- Heiss WD, et al (1994). Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 5(2):88-98. doi: 10.1159/000106702
- De Simone R, et al (2003). Apoptotic PC12 cells exposing phosphatidylserine promote the production of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecules by microglial cells. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 62(2):208-16. doi: 10.1093/jnen/62.2.208
Citicoline (or CDP Choline) is a compound made up of choline and cytidine (which converts into uridine) with neuroprotective and nootropic activity. Citicoline decreases age-related memory impairment and cognitive decline, and enhances attention, learning and memory. Citicoline also increases phosphatidylcholine production in the brain – an important component of cell membranes. Citicoline also maintains neuronal membrane integrity and reduces neuronal death.
- Weiss GB1 (1995). Metabolism and actions of CDP-choline as an endogenous compound and administered exogenously as citicoline. Life Sci. 1995;56(9):637-60. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(94)00427-T
- Fagone P & Jackowski S (2012). Phosphatidylcholine and the CDP-choline cycle. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1831(3):523-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2012.09.009
Theacrine as TeaCrine®
Methylliberine as Dynamine®
TeaCrine® is a purine alkaloid found in the kucha Chinese tea plant (Camellia assamica), and Dynamine®'s molecular structure is similar (and it behaves similarly in the body). TeaCrine® and Dynamine® are proven to increase mental clarity, energize workouts, and increase overall mood and motivation. TeaCrine® provides a long-lasting boost of energy, without any of the negative side effects (anxiety, insomnia, tolerance) associated with caffeine. It also activates the dopamine receptors DRD1 and DRD2, resulting in improved mood and help combat depression. TeaCrine® and Dynamine® are not stimulants, though they perform well with caffeine. Dynamine®'s onset is faster than caffeine, while TeaCrine®’s is slower than caffeine.
- Ziegenfuss TN, Habowski SM, Sandrock JE, Kedia AW, Kerksick CM, Lopez HL. A Two-Part Approach to Examine the Effects of Theacrine (TeaCrine®) Supplementation on Oxygen Consumption, Hemodynamic Responses, and Subjective Measures of Cognitive and Psychometric Parameters. J Diet Suppl. 2016;1-15. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2016.1178678
- Feduccia AA, Wang Y, Simms JA, et al. Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;102(2):241-8.
- VanDusseldorp TA, Stratton MT, Bailly AR, Holmes AJ, Alesi MG, Feito Y, Mangine GT, Hester GM, Esmat TA, Barcala M, Tuggle KR, Snyder M, Modjeski AS. Safety of Short-Term Supplementation with Methylliberine (Dynamine®) Alone and in Combination with TeaCrine® in Young Adults. Nutrients. 2020 Feb 28;12(3):654. doi: 10.3390/nu12030654. PMID: 32121218; PMCID: PMC7146520.
PQQ is a quinone molecule with a potent anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effect. Studies indicate that PQQ can increase mitochondrial energy and help prevent cognitive decline. PQQ increases the production of mitochondria and improves their efficiency, and can act as a growth factor after prolonged intake. It also increases NGF (nerve growth factor) synthesis, promoting neuronal growth and survival.
- Chowanadisai W, et al (2010). Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression. J Biol Chem, 285(1):142-52. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.030130
- Yamaguchi K, et al (1993). Stimulation of nerve growth factor production by pyrroloquinoline quinone and its derivatives in vitro and in vivo. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 57(7):1231-3. doi: 10.1271/bbb.57.1231